This section covers the legal considerations and typographic conventions in this handbook.
1.1. Typographic Conventions¶
The Lumina® Handbook uses several typographic conventions. Table 1.1.1 provides a simple reference for these conventions:
|Graphical elements: buttons, icons, fields, columns and boxes||Click the Import CA button.|
|CLI Command name||Use scp.|
|A command line example||
|Files, volume and dataset names, and directories||Locate the
|Keyboard keys||Press the
|Important points||This is important.|
|Values entered into fields, or device names||Enter 127.0.0.1 in the address field.|
This section covers the required legal elements to the handbook, including the Copyright notice, Trademarks used in the document, and the Lumina® ethical advertising policy.
1.2.1. Copyright & Trademarks¶
Copyright © 2005-2017, iXsystems
The Lumina® Handbook is freely available for sharing and redistribution under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. This means you have permission to copy, distribute, translate, and adapt the work as long as you attribute the Lumina® Project as the original source of the Handbook.
SysAdm™ is a trademark of iXsystems.
TrueOS Pico™, Pico Server™, and Pico Client™ are trademarks of iXsystems.
AMD is a trademark of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
Apache is a trademark of The Apache Software Foundation.
AppCafe® is a registered trademark of iXsystems.
Asus® and Eee PC® are registered trademarks of ASUSTeK® Computer Inc.
Facebook® is a registered trademark of Facebook Inc.
Flash® is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries.
FreeBSD® is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation.
FreeNAS® is a registered trademark of iXsystems.
Intel, the Intel logo, Pentium Inside, and Pentium are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and/or other countries.
Java™ is a trademark of Oracle America and/or its affiliates in the United States and other countries.
LinkedIn® is a registered trademark of LinkedIn Corporation.
Linux® is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.
Mac and Mac OS are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries.
NVIDIA® is a trademark and/or registered trademark of NVIDIA Corporation in the U.S. and other countries.
ThinkPad® is a registered trademark of Lenovo.
Twitter is a trademark of Twitter, Inc. in the United States and other countries.
UNIX® is a registered trademark of The Open Group.
VirtualBox® is a registered trademark of Oracle.
VMWare® is a registered trademark of VMWare, Inc.
Windows® is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and other countries.
1.2.2. Ethical Advertising Policy¶
For many years, users have wanted to give back to the Lumina® project. Generally, we encouraged users to donate or actively contribute to the FreeBSD project to ensure FreeBSD continues to be successful in the future. Because Lumina® is open source software, we have included a minimal number of ads as a simple method for users to give back to the project, if they wish.
The primary consideration for these ads is to avoid detracting from the user experience as much as possible. To this end, any ads in the Handbook will be limited to the navigation sidebar, and only in a predefined space underneath all other navigation options. We are resolved to protect user privacy and security, and do not collect user information, with the exception of click throughs. Furthermore, we do not collect any data for targeted ads, and are committed to only show high quality ads pertaining to our user base.
Clicking on a Newegg ad directs users through an affiliate link that gives the Lumina® project a modest commission based on any items purchased within 24 hours. This is a simple time tracking cookie used to ensure the Lumina® project is afforded its commission. To ask questions about our Ethical Advertising policy, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org for more information.
2. Introduction to Lumina®¶
The Lumina Desktop Environment (Lumina® for short) is a lightweight, XDG-compliant, BSD-licensed desktop environment focused on streamlining work efficiency with minimal system overhead. It is specifically designed for TrueOS® and FreeBSD, but has also been ported to many other BSD and Linux operating systems. It is based on the Qt graphical toolkit and the Fluxbox window manager, and uses a small number of X utilities for various tasks, such as numlockx and xscreensaver.
Lumina®‘s features include:
- Very little system overhead.
- Does not require any of the desktop implementation frameworks such as DBUS, policykit, consolekit, systemd, or HALD.
- Does not come bundled with any applications such as web browsers, email clients, multimedia software, or office suites. Instead, it provides utilities for configuring the desktop environment.
- Uses a simple, text-based configuration file for setting system-wide defaults. Lumina® distributors can use this file to easily preset the Lumina® defaults and interface for their distribution.
- Provides a plugin-based interface design. The user can make their desktop as light or heavy as they wish by choosing which plugins to have running on their desktop and panels. This plugin-based system is similar to Android or other modern operating systems.
- A single, easy-to-use Configuration utility controls all the different configuration options for the desktop in one location.
- Intelligent “favorites” system for creating quick shortcuts to applications, files, and directories.
- ZFS file restore functionality through the Insight File Manager.
- Multi-monitor support includes the Xconfig graphical utility for adding or removing monitors from the Lumina® session.
- Simple system controls through the system menu for configuring audio volume, screen brightness, battery status/notifications, and workspace switching.
- Total system search capabilities through the resource friendly Lumina® Search utility.
- Screenshot functionality through Lumina® Screenshot, which is
also tied to the
Print Screenkey by default.
2.1. Install and Start¶
Lumina® is available as a pre-built package for numerous operating systems. The Get Lumina® section of the webpage includes installation instructions for each supported system.
In addition to pre-built packages, the Lumina® source repository is available on GitHub so that developers can contribute code or create packages for other distributions. If you plan to compile Lumina® from source, refer to the DEPENDENCIES file and ensure all dependent software is installed and to the README file for build instructions.
After installing Lumina®, no startup configuration is needed when installed on a TrueOS® system as the PCDM login manager will automatically display Lumina® in the login menu. Simply log out, select Lumina®, and log back in.
When using a system with no graphical login manager, type start-lumina-desktop to start Lumina®.
The rest of this Handbook describes the Lumina Configuration utility, other various utilities built into Lumina®, and Lumina® plugins. Also, the handbook shows how to be involved improving Lumina®, as well as reproducing the change log for each major release of Lumina®.
2.2. Initial Settings¶
When freshly installed, Lumina® will implement a number of default plugins and options for the user. All these first time defaults are configurable, with the numerous options covered in the Plugins section of the handbook.
The default desktop appearance can vary if using another distrubution’s custom configuration of the Lumina® Desktop Project.
Figure 2.2.1 is a screenshot of Lumina using its default settings. The user has clicked the “Lumina®” icon in order to open the start menu.
The Start Menu provides quick access for user interaction with the system. The top frame is a search bar for rapidly finding specific items. Just underneath the search bar is a small field indicating which user is logged in. Also, If the system has a battery, you can hover over the battery icon (not pictured) on the opposite side of the user name to display the current status of the battery and the estimated time remaining if the battery is discharging. The remaining space of the start menu is divided into several categories:
Favorites: This element is the largest section of the menu. Click an entry to launch that application. Right-click an entry to Remove from Favorites or to Add to Quicklaunch. In Lumina®, Favorites appear in this section of the start menu and QuickLaunch adds a button for the application to the panel next to the Start Menu.
Browse Files: Used to browse for files and directories using the Insight File Manager. One available action in this file manager is the ability to add a file or directory to the list of Favorites. Simply select the file or directory and click the star icon in Insight.
Browse Applications: Click this entry to browse all applications currently registered on the system. Applications are listed alphabetically by category. The Show Categories button has three modes which are changed by clicking the button: category names (checked box), no categories (unchecked box), and categories with contents (half-checked box).
Click an application’s name to start the application. Right-click an application’s name to view choices for Pin to Desktop, Add to Favorites, or Add to Quicklaunch. Using TrueOS® or another operating system with a pre-defined application store will add a Manage Applications button at the top of the applications list. Click it to open the specific operating system’s application store. For example, on a TrueOS® system, Manage Applications opens AppCafe®. Click Back to return to the start menu.
Control Panel: If using TrueOS® or an operating system with a control panel, click this entry to open the operating system’s control panel.
Preferences: Click this entry to access a number of options:
- Configure Desktop: This entry opens the Configuration utility.
- Lumina Desktop Information: Click the ? icon to determine the installed version of Lumina®.
- System Volume: Use the mouse to move the volume control slider to change the system audio volume from 0% to 100%. Click the sound icon on the left to mute or unmute the speaker. If the operating system provides a mixer utility, click the speaker icon on the right to launch the mixer utility for advanced control of the audio system.
- Screen Brightness: Use the mouse to move the brightness control slider from 10% to 100%.
- Workspace: The number of available virtual workspaces are listed. Click the right or left arrow to switch between workspaces.
- Locale: This will only appear if the lumina-i18n package is installed. The current locale will be displayed as the title of the drop-down menu. Click the drop-down menu to select another locale for this session. Refer to User Settings for more information on fine-tuning the locale settings.
- Back: Click to return to the start menu.
Leave: Click this entry to view options to Suspend System (if supported by the operating system, press the system’s power button to login and resume operation), Restart System (if the user has permission), Power Off System (if the user has permission), Sign Out User, or press Back to return to the start menu. Alternately, click the lock icon next to Leave to lock the system, which will start the screensaver and password prompt to resume the session.
On a TrueOS® system currently applying updates, the shutdown and restart options are disabled until the updates are complete. A popup indicates updates are in progress.
2.2.1. Default Keyboard Shortcuts¶
By default, Lumina® utilizes a large number of keyboard shortcuts, as seen in Table 2.2.1. Many of these shortcuts are derived from fluxbox defaults, as noted in the table.
|Alt + click (open window)||Move window||Fluxbox|
|Alt + right click (open window)||Resize window||Fluxbox|
|Alt + middle click (open window||Lower window||Fluxbox|
|Ctrl + click + drag (window titlebar)||Attach windows||Fluxbox|
|Alt + Tab||Next window||Fluxbox|
|Alt + Shift + Tab||Previous window||Fluxbox|
|Ctrl + Tab||Next group||Fluxbox|
|Ctrl + Shift + Tab||Previous group||Fluxbox|
|Windows Key + Tab||Next (Fluxbox) Tab||Fluxbox|
|Windows Key + Shift + Tab||Previous (Fluxbox) Tab||Fluxbox|
|Alt + Left Arrow||Arrange windows in a tiled state. The active window moves screen left.||Fluxbox|
|Alt + Right Arrow||Arrange windows in a tiled state. The active window moves screen right.||Fluxbox|
|Windows Key + <1-9>||Move to a specific tab in the current window.||Fluxbox|
|Alt + F1||Opens Lumina default terminal||Lumina|
|Alt + F2||Opens lumina-search||Fluxbox|
|Alt + F4||Close open window||Fluxbox|
|Alt + F5||Kill the open window’s process.||Fluxbox|
|Alt + F9||Minimize open window||Fluxbox|
|Alt + F10||Maximize open window||Fluxbox|
|Alt + F11||Fullscreen open window||Fluxbox|
|Windows Key + <Left & Right Arrows>||Send current window to previous/next workspace.||Fluxbox|
|Ctrl + Windows Key + <Left & Right Arrows>||Send current window to previous/next workspace and follow the window.||Fluxbox|
|Windows Key + F1-12||Change to a specific workspace.||Fluxbox|
|Ctrl + Windows Key + F1-12||Change to a specific workspace with the active window.||Fluxbox|
|Pause||Lock the system||Lumina|
|Alt + L||Lock the system (alternate)||Lumina|
|Alt + Space||Open lumina-search||Lumina|
|Alt + PgUp||Increase system volume||Lumina|
|Alt + PgDn||Decrease system volume||Lumina|
|Alt + Home||Increase brightness||Lumina|
|Alt + End||Decrease brightness||Lumina|
|F12||Open the Lumina default terminal||Lumina|
|Windows Key||Open the default “Start Menu”||Lumina|
2.3. Panel and System Tray¶
By default, Lumina® provides a panel at the bottom of the screen with a system tray at the far right of the panel. This section describes the default layout. For instructions on how to configure the panel, refer to the Interface Configuration section.
When opening windows or applications, a button will be added to the section of the panel near the start menu. If the application provides an icon, the button will appear with the icon and descriptive text. Mouse over the button to show the full name of the application. Each open window or application will have its own button on the panel. Click a button to make that window active; click it again to minimize it.
Right-click the title of an open window to open a menu of options, including stick, layer/dock, and set transparency, among other options.
The system tray is located in the right portion of the panel. Any applications that register a tray icon will appear in this area. For example, on a TrueOS® system, icons will appear for Life Preserver, Mount Tray, and SysAdm™. Refer to Interface Configuration for instructions on modifying which applications appear in the system tray. Click or right-click an icon to interact with an application directly. The current system time shown by the clock is in the default format for the current locale. Click the clock, then hover over Time Zone to open the time zone menu. From here, select either Use System Time or hover over a country name in order to select a city to change to that city’s time zone.